There was a lot of interesting plasma atomic layer deposition activities during 2015. I have found 237 references utilizing PEALD in one form or another that were accepted for publication during the year. That is a 63% increase over the 147 references found in 2014. Below, I have plotted a monthly histogram comparing the 2014 and 2015 activities.
References included 67 different materials by PEALD in 2015. 22 more than the 45 films in 2014. Below is a publication frequency plot for all materials that appeared at least four times in either 2015 or 2014. Al2O3 led the pack both years, extending its lead over the second place film considerably. SiNx saw substantial gains due to the PEALD improvements this important material has seen recently. Ru had nine 2015 publications after not showing up at all in 2014. HfSiOx had four publications in 2014 but fell out of favor in 2015. Materials that had fewer than 3 references in both years are listed below the plot.
Additional 2015 PEALD films
3 references: AlxGa1-xN, In2O3, MnOx, Ta2O5, Pd, Ga2O3
2 references: BN, HfSiOx, WCN, YSZ, Sb2Te3, InGaN, W, BaTiO3, ZrN, RuO2, Ag, AlON, TiC, TiON
1 reference: GeSbTe, MoWO, MoN, ZrON, WO3, ZnSnO, Bi2O3, B2O3, LiPON, BGaN, MgxZn1-xO, SnO2, Ni, Cu3N, BiFeO3, HfZrO2, InZnO, SrO, WC, BInN, Au, Cu, AlInN, HfAlOx, IGZO, Fe2O3, MgO, Sb2O5, V2O5
Additional 2014 PEALD films
3 references: TiCN, ZrO2, AlxGa1-xN
2 references: Ga:ZnO, TiON, Pd, BN, Ag, SrTiO3, Ta2O5, ZnO, La2O3
1 reference: SrO, Dy2O3, ZrON, ZrN, Graphene, B:SiO2, Li2O, AlStTiO, AlTixOy, Er2O3, HfAlOx, Y2O3, CoOx, B2O3, Co, IrO2, WSiN, SnO2, In2(S,O)3, Li2CO3, AlPxOy, Fe2O3
Lots of different hardware being used to produce PEALD films in the literature. Unfortunately, the most common hardware found in the literature is "Unknown". I will admit, some of those unknowns are because I just have the abstract or what I can glean from creative Google Scholar searches but many publications are not providing this information.
After you get past the unknowns and custom hardware, Cambridge NanoTech Fiji was again the top commercial hardware found in the literature. Oxford Instruments made substantial gains this year with publication growth for both their FlexAL and OpAL systems. Gains were also seen by Beneq, Lesker, Picosun, and SENTECH. Atomic Premium is a newcomer with 4 publications in 2015.
Additional hardware had just one publication in either 2014 or 2015. Those are listed after the plot.
1 publication in 2014 and 2015: ASM EmerALD, Quros Plus 200
1 publication in 2015 only: Applied Materials 300mm ALD, ASM Genitech PEALD, Beneq TFS-500, Cambridge NanoTech Savannah, FHR ALD 150, iOV d100, iSAC Co. Ltd., Lam ALTUS, PEALD-200A Jiaxing Kemicro Microelectronic, SNTEK Co. ALD 5008
1 publication in 2014 only: Leintech LTSR-150, myplas Plasma Electronic, Synos PEALD, ASM Eagle XP8, Eugene Technology Cardinal, ForALL OZONE
Plasma ALD publications came from 30 different countries in 2015. This is up from 24 in 2014. South Korea, USA, and Germany each showed considerable growth and remained the top three. Taiwan moved up from 9th to 4th with a 4x increase in publications. The Netherlands rose from 10th to 5th. Italy, who didn't even show up for the 2014 review, came in 12th with 6 publications. The plot below shows all the regional data for 2014 and 2015 except for Thailand who had 1 publication in 2014 but zero in 2015. The region for a paper is based on the location of the first author's institution.
Plasma ALD publications came from 125 institutions in 2015, up from 92 in 2014. The plot below shows the top 14 plasma ALD publication producing institutions from 2015, who each had at least 4 publications during the year. Eindhoven University of Technology was a clear leader in 2015 with 12 up from 3 in 2014. Bilkent dropped from the top spot in 2014 to 10th on this years list.
I am sure there are papers I have not found. I am sure there is an occasional typo or omission in the database entries. If you know of publications I have missed or a database entry is wrong, send me an email at: firstname.lastname@example.org
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